Maternal Depression and its Relation to Children’s Development and Adjustment
E. Mark Cummings, PhD, Chrystyna D. Kouros, PhD
University of Notre Dame, USA, Vanderbilt University, USA
Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders, especially common during women’s childbearing years.1,2 Maternal depression is related to child outcomes as early as birth and across later developmental periods. Accordingly, maternal depression is a significant and relatively common risk factor during early childhood. A pressing goal for research is to understand developmental trajectories and processes underlying relations between maternal depression and children’s development.
Maternal depression is demonstrated to contribute to multiple early child developmental problems, including impaired cognitive, social and academic functioning.3-6 Children of depressed mothers are at least two to three times more likely to develop adjustment problems, including mood disorders.3 Even in infancy, children of depressed mothers are more fussy, less responsive to facial and vocal expressions, more inactive and have elevated stress hormones compared to infants of non-depressed mothers.7,8 Accordingly, the study of child development in the context of maternal depression is a great societal concern and has been a major research direction for early childhood developmental researchers for the past several decades.
Whereas relations between maternal depression and children’s adjustment problems are well-documented, many questions remain about the mechanisms underlying these associations. These questions are at the heart of any possible clinical implications of research in this area, including prevention and treatment. For example, how and why is maternal depression related to children’s development and adjustment? Why do some children of depressed mothers develop symptoms of psychopathology or impaired functioning, whereas others do not?
There are many challenges for identifying and testing causal processes, such as ensuring sufficiently sophisticated models and research designs to guide study of multiple, and often interrelated, processes. The challenge of ensuring adequate conceptualization, measurement and assessment also pose potential pitfalls and limitations, including the requirements for longitudinal research to optimally test causal hypotheses.
Investigators have met these challenges by advancing multivariate risk models. For example, Goodman and Gotlib posited several, inter-related, classes of mechanisms, including (a) heritability, (b) exposure to environmental stressors, including increased family dysfunction, (c) exposure to their mothers’ negative cognitions, behaviours, or affect, and (d) dysfunction of neuroregulatory mechanisms.9 Illustrating one of these pathways, depressed pregnant women may experience neuroendocrine abnormalities (e.g., increased stress hormones, reduced blood flow to the fetus) which may lead to dysfunction of neuroregulatory mechanisms among infants, increasing their vulnerability for depression or other disorders.
In the context of studies of early child development, the study of disruption in family functioning as contributors to early child development outcomes has emerged as a focal area of investigation. Even when study is limited to family processes as influences, multivariate risk models find support.9-12 For example, Cummings and Davies13 presented a framework for how multiple disruptions in child and family functioning and related contexts are supported as pertinent to associations between maternal depression and early child adjustment, including problematic parenting, marital conflict, children’s exposure to parental depression, and related difficulties in family processes.10,11 A particular focus of this family process model is identifying and distinguishing specific response processes in the child (e.g., emotional insecurity; specific emotional, cognitive, behavioral or physiological responses) that, over time, account for normal development or the development of psychopathology.10
Key Research Questions
At this point, many key research questions need to be addressed by the study of longitudinal relations between maternal depression, hypothesized family and child response processes, and multiple child outcomes. Tests may include investigations of explanatory process models or studies of trajectories or pathways of development. Goals include identifying underlying family and child processes linking maternal depression and child development, how do these processes work together and change over time, child gender differences in effects, and the role of child characteristics.
Recent Research Results
Parenting has long been the focus of research of family processes that may contribute to child outcomes. Studies have shown repeatedly that maternal depression is linked with less optimal parenting and less secure mother-child attachment.5,15,16 Depressed mothers are more likely to be inconsistent, lax, withdrawn or intrusive, and ineffective in their parenting and child discipline behaviour. Inadequate parenting and lower quality parent-child relationships, in turn, are related to increased risk for maladjustment among children.
Although marital conflict has long been linked with the effects of maternal depression, the study of this topic continues to be relatively neglected. At the same time, recent evidence continues to support that interparental conflict is a robust influence on child outcomes, even when compared to parenting in community samples.14
Extensive research documents links between marital conflict and child maladjustment in families with maternal depression. In contexts of maternal depression, marital conflicts are characterized by lower positive verbal behaviour, sad affect, increased use of destructive conflict tactics, and lower likelihood of conflict resolution.17,18 Interparental conflict is a robust predictor of children’s functioning across multiple domains, including socio-emotional outcomes, cognitive functioning and academic success.19
Studies are explicitly testing family processes, including interparental conflict, as mediators or moderators between maternal depression and children’s outcomes. The findings show that maternal depression is related to increased interparental conflict and relationship insecurity, more family-level conflict and overall family functioning. Disruptions in these family processes, in turn, are related to higher levels of children’s psychological distress and adjustment problems.20-24 The role of child characteristics in the association between maternal depression and children’s development is also under investigation, including children’s temperament and physiological responses to stress.5, 25
There are still many gaps that need to be addressed. First, further study of the role of interparental conflict in the effects associated with maternal depression is needed, especially distinguishing between forms of conflict. For example, quite different effects on children have been linked to constructive, destructive and depressive interparental conflicts.26 Second, longitudinal research across different developmental periods is needed to understand the short-term and long-term consequences of maternal depression for family functioning and children’s development. Third, it is important for studies to distinguish between clinical and subclinical levels of maternal depression.10 Similarly, the impact of the characteristics of maternal depression requires further investigation; depression is a heterogeneous disorder, and the timing, chronicity and number of episodes of maternal depression may influence relations between maternal depression and child adjustment. Fourth, although research has focused on maternal depression, the effect of paternal depression deserves further consideration, including examining relations when both parents are depressed.5 Fifth, further study of child characteristics, such as temperament, sex, genetics and physiological regulation warrant consideration. Lastly, research should aim for more specificity with regard to child outcomes. For example, why do some children develop impaired social competence in the context of maternal depression, whereas other children develop symptoms of depression?
Maternal depression is related to a wide range of child outcomes, and the effects continue from birth into adulthood. Children of depressed mothers are two to three times more likely to develop a mood disorder, and are at increased risk for impaired functioning across multiple domains, including cognitive, social and academic functioning, and poor physical health. At the same time, many children of depressed mothers develop normally. Therefore, the key research goal is to understand the pathways and processes through which maternal depression affects children. Disruptions to family processes, including parenting problems and interparental conflict, are documented as pathways through which maternal depression affects children. Evidence that family processes may account for links between maternal depression and child development is promising from a treatment and intervention standpoint, in that family processes can be more easily targeted and altered than other mediating processes (e.g., heritability).
Implications for parents, services and policy
Policy-makers and clinicians should work together to make services, such as screenings for pregnant women and mothers, readily available.6 Programs aimed at reducing disruptions to family functioning are one avenue for decreasing children’s risk for psychopathology. Parents, clinicians and policymakers should be sensitive to the fact that comprehensive programs are needed that not only treat mothers’ depression but also offer family-level services. For example, depressed mothers could be provided with parent education classes to teach them effective skills and best practices for child rearing and discipline. Families with a depressed parent can partake in educational classes that teach constructive ways to handle conflict, that is, how to handle conflict in ways that promote problem-solving and conflict resolution. As more research on moderating factors is conducted, prevention and treatment efforts can be better targeted to those most at risk. Such comprehensive efforts that work together with mothers, children and families will certainly have a long-lasting and important impact on children’s development.
- Kessler RC. Epidemiology of women and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 2003;74(1):5-13.
- Brown GW, Harris T. Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York, NY: Free Press; 1978.
- Beardslee WR, Versage EM, Gladstone TRG. Children of affectively ill parents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37(11):1134-1141.
- Downey G., Coyne JC. Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin 1990;108(1):50-76.
- Goodman SH. Depression in mothers. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2007;3:107-135.
- Goodman SH, Tully EC. Depression in women who are mothers: An integrative model of risk for the development of psychopathology in their sons and daughters. In: Keyes CLM, Goodman SH, eds. Women and depression: A handbook for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2006: 241-282.
- Cohn JF, Tronick EZ. Three-month-old infants’ reaction to simulated maternal depression. Child Development 1983;54(1):185-193.
- Field TM. Prenatal effects of maternal depression. In: Goodman SH, Gotlib IH, eds. Children of depressed parents: Mechanisms of risk and implications for treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002: 59-88.
- Goodman SH, Gotlib IH. Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review 1999;106(3):458-490.
- Cummings EM, DeArth-Pendley G, Du Rocher Schudlich TD, Smith DA. Parental depression and family functioning: Toward a process-oriented model of children’s adjustment. In: Beach SR, ed. Marital and family processes in Depression: A scientific foundation for clinical practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2001: 89-110.
- Emery RE. Interparental conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin 1982;92(2):310-330.
- Hops H, Sherman L, Biglan A. Maternal depression, marital discord, and children’s behavior: A developmental perspective. In: Patterson GR, ed. Depression and aggression in family interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum;1990: 185-208.
- Cummings EM, Davies PT. Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1994;35(1):73-112.
- Cummings EM, Keller PS, Davies PT. Towards a family process model of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms: Exploring multiple relations with child and family functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2005;46(5): 479-489.
- Lovejoy MC, Graczyk PA, O’Hare E, Neuman G. Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review 2000;20(5):561-592.
- McCary CA, McMahon RJ, Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Family Psychology 2003;17(4):545-556.
- Du Rocher Schudlich TD, Papp LM, Cummings EM. Relations of husbands’ and wives’ dysphoria to marital conflict resolution strategies. Journal of Family Psychology 2004;18(1):171-183.
- Gotlib IH, Whiffen VE. Depression and marital functioning: An examination of specificity and gender differences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 1989;98(1):23-30.
- Cummings EM, Davies PT. Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2002;43(1):31-63.
- Cummings EM, Schermerhorn AC, Keller PS, Davies PT. Parental depressive symptoms, children’s representations of family relationships, and child adjustment. Social Development 2008;17(2):278-305.
- Davies PT, Windle M. Gender-specific pathways between maternal depressive symptoms, family discord, and adolescent adjustment. Developmental Psychology 1997;33(4):657-668.
- Du Rocher Schudlich TD, Cummings EM. Parental dysphoria and children’s internalizing symptoms: Marital conflict styles as mediators of risk. Child Development 2003;74(6):1663-1681.
- Du Rocher Schudlich TD, Youngstrom EA, Calabrese JR, Findling RL. The role of family functioning in bipolar disorder in families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2008;36(6):849-863.
- Shelton KH, Harold GT. Interparental conflict, negative parenting, and children’s adjustment: Bridging links between parents’ depression and children’s psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology 2008;22(5):712-724.
- Cummings EM, El-Sheikh M, Kouros CD, Keller PS. Children’s skin conductance reactivity as a mechanism of risk in the context of parental depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2007;48(5):436-445.
- Cummings EM, Davies, PT. Marital conflict and children: An emotional security perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2010.
How to cite this article:
Cummings M, Kouros CD. Maternal Depression and its Relation to Children’s Development and Adjustment. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/maternal-depression/according-experts/maternal-depression-and-its-relation-childrens-development-and. Published October 2009. Accessed June 18, 2019.