Consequences of Short Sleep Duration or Poor Sleep in Young Children
Dominique Petit, PhD, Jacques Montplaisir, MD, PhD, CRCPc
Hôpital Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, Université de Montréal, Canada
Sleep is a major factor in a child’s overall development. Yet the total duration of sleep among children (and even among very young children) is decreasing from one decade to the next.1 A growing number of studies are showing that poor sleep, or sleep of insufficient duration, has deleterious consequences in a number of areas of child development.
The expressions “to sleep like a baby” or “to sleep like a child” are synonymous with having an excellent sleep. Yet epidemiological studies carried out in several countries around the world tell us that a significant percentage of young children have sleep problems. In fact, between one quarter and one third of children aged 1 to 6 years have sleep problems,2-6 which at this age are called “dyssomnias.” The two types of dyssomnias most common in young children are night wakings and sleep onset problems (either bedtime resistance or difficulty falling asleep).
At 6 months of age, infants have the physiological maturity to sleep at least six consecutive hours during the night. This is what parents call “sleeping through the night.” In fact, studies from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) show that about 75% of children in Quebec sleep through the night at 5 months. If this learning is delayed and the child is still not sleeping though the night at 18 months, the chances of the child becoming a good sleeper without any intervention decrease. It is normal for children to wake up spontaneously during the night. A study using videosomnography7 showed that children between ages 1 and 3 woke up about three times a night. The difference between a “good sleeper” and a “poor sleeper” is the child’s ability or inability to fall back asleep on his own after a night waking. The good sleeper will self-soothe and fall back asleep quickly. The “poor sleeper” will signal his awakenings to his parents by crying (or by calling them), creating a high level of physiological activation and also prolonging the waking time through interaction with the parent. A study carried out using the QLSCD data8 showed that 2-and-a-half-year-olds who had not learned to sleep through the night slept, on average, at least 1 hour 22 minutes less per night than good sleepers of the same age, and that this loss of sleep was not compensated by more sleep time during the day (naps); both groups slept about 2 hours during the day. Therefore, young children who have not learned to sleep through the night often have a chronic lack of sleep. The learning of independent sleep habits begins at bedtime. Children who learn to fall asleep on their own at bedtime know they will be able to fall back asleep on their own after a nocturnal waking.
Dyssomnia criteria adapted to young children have been established to guide clinicians.9,10 For frequent night wakings, the occurrence of two or more signalled wakings per night (in children age 12 to 23 months) or one or more signalled wakings per night (in children age 2 or over) constitutes a sleep disorder if it has been occurring every night (or almost every night) for more than one month and if the time spent awake totals at least 20 minutes. Children are considered to have a sleep onset problem if it takes them more than 30 minutes to fall asleep at age 12 to 24 months or more than 20 minutes to fall asleep at age 2 years or over. As well, a child is considered to have a sleep onset problem if a parent must stay with him until he falls asleep or if the child demands the presence of a parent more than two times an evening at the age of 12 to 23 months or more than once an evening at the age of 2 years or over.
Does fragmented sleep or sleep of insufficient duration really have measurable harmful consequences in children? The results of several recent studies show that insufficient sleep has a major impact in several areas of child development.
Sleep and behaviour
Lack of sleep manifests itself differently in preschool children than in adults. While adults display apathy and yawning, young children will display hyperactivity, irritability and a lower tolerance threshold. In children, short sleep duration and sleep problems are associated with behaviour problems.11,12 Data from the QLSCD13 showed that children who slept less than 9 hours before age 3 (but whose amount of sleep then increased) were more likely to have a high score on the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale at 6 years than children who had slept at least 10 hours throughout their early childhood. This study, which examines a myriad of aspects of child development, allowed for the control of variables that could have influenced this relationship. Sometimes diagnoses of hyperactivity disappear when the sleep problem is treated.14
Sleep and socioemotional development
Emotional regulation (or control) and emotional information processing are cornerstones of social competence. Yet, studies have shown that insufficient sleep affects emotional control and emotional information processing in children and adolescents.15-18 When compared to children with consolidated sleep, those with fragmented sleep displayed higher awakening cortisol levels and this correlated with higher ratings of negative emotionality.17 We also noted more aggressive behaviours in 6-year-old children with sleep-onset difficulties that had persisted up to that age.19
Sleep and cognitive development
Several studies have shown that sleep deprivation affects the cognitive performances of adults. This relationship is less known in children but it is nonetheless very real and begins very early in their development.20-22 It has been observed, for example, that the time slept at 12 to 18 months is associated with several executive function skills, such as working memory, impulse control and mental flexibility.20 A study derived from the QLSCD13 also shows that even short-term sleep deprivation at a young age (before 3 years) leads to deficits in verbal cognitive abilities (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and non-verbal cognitive abilities (Wechsler Block Design subtest) later on (at ages 5 and 6). This effect of deprivation was still present after controlling for several potentially confounding variables such as birth weight, breastfeeding, parental age and education level, parental immigrant status, socioeconomic level, etc.
Sleep and language development
Language development has a cognitive basis and, consequently, is altered by sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake circadian rhythm at 7 months is predictive of language abilities at age 3.21 A recent study carried out in twins23 showed that poor sleep consolidation (calculated by the ratio of daytime to night time sleep) at 6 and 18 months was associated with poorer language skills 3.5 years later. This study also revealed that at 6 months, sleep consolidation is mostly determined by genetic factors, while at 18 months it is mostly determined by environmental factors. For example, it was shown that parental behaviours surrounding the sleep period of the young child were environmental factors that affected the child’s sleep.8 The results of this study23 also suggest that sleep continues to play a role in language development throughout early childhood.
It seems that adequate sleep helps structure the foundations of language beginning at 6-7 months of age and fosters its development throughout early childhood. This suggests that the higher faculties, such as cognitive abilities and language, are dependent on proper development of physiological processes such as sleep organization, very early in the child’s life.
Sleep and healthy weight
As afore-mentioned, children are sleeping less and less from one generation to the next, mainly because of later bedtimes.1 Parallel to this, the incidence of childhood overweight and obesity is growing exponentially nearly everywhere in the world, especially in industrialized countries. Are these two phenomena related? Independent of several factors potentially associated with overweight, data from the QLSCD showed that for children who had generally slept 9 hours or less per night throughout early childhood (from 2.5 to 6 years), the risk of overweight or obesity at age 6 was four times greater than for children who had slept 11 hours per night during this same period.24 This association was also shown in adults (see reference 25 for a review) and in younger children.26 In fact, short sleep duration from 6 months to 2 years is a risk factor for overweight even at 3 years of age.26 The mechanism underlying this relationship is becoming better understood. Even partial sleep deprivation leads to a deficit in glucose metabolism and changes the circulating levels of hormones such as ghrelin and leptin.25 It has been shown that partial sleep deprivation carried out in a laboratory (4 hours of sleep) for two consecutive nights was enough to increase the secretion of ghrelin (appetite hormone) and to decrease that of leptin (satiety hormone).27 This had the effect of increasing not only overall appetite, but especially appetite for carbohydrates. Tatone-Tokuda and colleagues28 showed that a trajectory of short sleep duration during early childhood was associated with less favourable dietary intakes at 6 years (e.g., lower consumption of fruits and vegetables and higher consumption of soft drinks). In addition, boys who had had shorter sleep durations in early childhood were also more likely, at 6 years of age, to eat at irregular hours, or to eat too much or too fast, than boys with longer sleep duration patterns.
Childhood obesity is now a major public health concern, owing to its high prevalence and its association with many health problems29 such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammation, bone deformations, orthopedic complications, hepatic sclerosis, precocious puberty, polycystic ovaries in girls and hypogonadism in boys, asthma, sleep apnea, exercise intolerance, not to mention low self-esteem and depression. Given all these potential consequences of childhood obesity and the fact that, in 60 to 85% of cases, it tracks into adulthood,30 it is imperative to prevent obesity in children. Ensuring that children get an adequate amount of sleep is one step in this direction that would have a positive impact on several other areas of development.
Key Research Questions
The existence of a critical period at an early age for the beneficial effects of sleep requires further exploration. Sleep in the first three years of life is characterized by a very high percentage of REM sleep which occupies 50% of the sleep time of newborns and about 30% of sleep time from 6 months to 3 years, compared to rates of 20 to 25% after age 5. The percentage of REM sleep of a species is a function of its neonatal maturity (for a review, see reference 31), which suggests that REM sleep plays a role in brain and body development. We know that human beings are very immature at birth compared to other animal species. Could this be the reason for this critical period?
By what physiological mechanisms does sleep influence development? What are the most important key elements: the total duration of sleep, the duration of nocturnal sleep only, consolidation (that is, non-fragmentation) of sleep, the duration of certain sleep phases (slow-wave sleep, REM sleep)? Are these elements different for different aspects of development? We know that in adults, for example, slow-wave sleep plays a crucial role in physiological recovery and in the consolidation of declarative memory. REM sleep plays an important role in the regulation of emotions and in the consolidation of procedural memory. What is the case in young children, whose bodies and brains are still developing?
It would also be important to study dyssomnias caused by chronic health problems or slower biological maturation (linked to the genetic component found at 6 months) and to verify whether these lead to different consequences than those resulting from poor sleep habits (commonly called behavioural insomnia).
It now appears evident that sleep, of good quality and of sufficient duration, is a cornerstone of normal physical, cognitive, language and emotional development. According to the National Sleep Foundation,32 children between 3 and 12 years of age should sleep at least 10 to 11 hours a night. The data from the QLSCD tell us that a sufficient amount of sleep for children age 6 months to 3 years is also essential. Otherwise, certain unfavourable and irreversible effects on development occur even if the sleep duration later becomes normal. This suggests the existence of a critical maturation period of the nervous system during which sleep plays a key role. It is therefore vital to treat severe dyssomnias as early as possible so as to foster optimal development in children.
Implications for Policy and Services
It is of utmost importance that the entire population be informed about the crucial role of sleep in young children’s development so that there is rapid intervention when a problem is detected. Early detection of sleep problems requires setting up monitoring structures adapted to pediatric populations. It would therefore be highly desirable for people working in pediatric and family services to receive extensive training on the prevention, detection and treatment of dyssomnias in young children. In fact, a new form of therapy has come into existence over the last five years. Online evaluation and intervention programs are being established, given the paucity of easily accessible specialized services in pediatric sleep medicine. In Canada, an online intervention program called “Better Nights/Better Days: Improving Psychosocial Health Outcomes in Children with Behavioural Insomnia” is being developed through the collaboration of researchers and clinicians from various provinces. There is still much to be done, however, to respond to this urgent need.
- Iglowstein I, Jenni OG, Molinari L, Largo RH. Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: reference values and generational trends. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 302-7.
- Ottaviano S, Giannotti F, Cortesi F, Bruni O, Ottaviano C. Sleep characteristics in healthy children from birth to 6 years of age in the urban area of Rome. Sleep 1996; 19: 1-3.
- Owens J. Classification and epidemiology of childhood sleep disorders. Prim Care 2008; 35: 533-46, vii.
- Sadeh A, Sivan Y. Clinical practice: sleep problems during infancy. Eur J Pediatr 2009; 168: 1159-64.
- Simola P, Niskakangas M, Liukkonen K, Virkkula P, Pitkaranta A, Kirjavainen T, et al. Sleep problems and daytime tiredness in Finnish preschool-aged children—a community survey. Child Care Health Dev 2010; 36: 805-11.
- Teng A, Bartle A, Sadeh A, Mindell J. Infant and toddler sleep in Australia and New Zealand. J Paediatr Child Health 2012; 48: 268-73.
- Minde K, Popiel K, Leos N, Falkner S, Parker K, Handley-Derry M. The evaluation and treatment of sleep disturbances in young children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993; 34: 521-33.
- Touchette E, Petit D, Paquet J, Boivin M, Japel C, Tremblay RE, et al. Factors associated with fragmented sleep at night across early childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159: 242-9.
- Gaylor EE, Goodlin-Jones BL, Anders TF. Classification of young children's sleep problems: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40: 61-7.
- Gaylor EE, Burnham MM, Goodlin-Jones BL, Anders TF. A longitudinal follow-up study of young children's sleep patterns using a developmental classification system. Behav Sleep Med 2005; 3: 44-61.
- Paavonen EJ, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Lahikainen AR. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5-6-year-old children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009; 18: 747-54.
- Smedje H, Broman JE, Hetta J. Associations between disturbed sleep and behavioural difficulties in 635 children aged six to eight years: a study based on parents' perceptions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 10: 1-9.
- Touchette E, Petit D, Seguin JR, Boivin M, Tremblay RE, Montplaisir JY. Associations between sleep duration patterns and behavioral/cognitive functioning at school entry. Sleep 2007; 30: 1213-9.
- Chervin RD, Dillon JE, Bassetti C, Ganoczy DA, Pituch KJ. Symptoms of sleep disorders, inattention, and hyperactivity in children. Sleep 1997; 20: 1185-92.
- Berger RH, Miller AL, Seifer R, Cares SR, LeBourgeois MK. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children. J Sleep Res 2012; 21: 235-46.
- McGlinchey EL, Talbot LS, Chang KH, Kaplan KA, Dahl RE, Harvey AG. The effect of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion in adolescents and adults. Sleep 2011; 34: 1233-41.
- Scher A, Hall WA, Zaidman-Zait A, Weinberg J. Sleep quality, cortisol levels, and behavioral regulation in toddlers. Dev Psychobiol 2010; 52: 44-53.
- Soffer-Dudek N, Sadeh A, Dahl RE, Rosenblat-Stein S. Poor sleep quality predicts deficient emotion information processing over time in early adolescence. Sleep 2011; 34: 1499-508.
- Petit D, Touchette E, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Montplaisir J. Dyssomnias and parasomnias in early childhood. Pediatrics 2007; 119: e1016-25.
- Bernier A, Carlson SM, Bordeleau S, Carrier J. Relations between physiological and cognitive regulatory systems: infant sleep regulation and subsequent executive functioning. Child Dev 2010; 81: 1739-52.
- Dearing E, McCartney K, Marshall LM, Warner RM. Parental reports of children's sleep and wakefulness: longitudinal associations with cognitive and language outcomes. Infant Behav Dev 2001; 24: 151-70.
- Scher A. Infant sleep at 10 months of age as a window to cognitive development. Early Hum Dev 2005; 81: 289-92.
- Dionne G, Touchette E, Forget-Dubois N, Petit D, Tremblay RE, Montplaisir JY, et al. Associations between sleep-wake consolidation and language development in early childhood: a longitudinal twin study. Sleep 2011; 34: 987-95.
- Touchette E, Petit D, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Falissard B, Genolini C, et al. Associations between sleep duration patterns and overweight/obesity at age 6. Sleep 2008; 31: 1507-14.
- Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, Van Cauter E. The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep Med Rev 2007; 11: 163-78.
- Taveras EM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Oken E, Gunderson EP, Gillman MW. Short sleep duration in infancy and risk of childhood overweight. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008; 162: 305-11.
- Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 846-50.
- Tatone-Tokuda F, Dubois L, Ramsay T, Girard M, Touchette E, Petit D, et al. Sex differences in the association between sleep duration, diet and body mass index: a birth cohort study. J Sleep Res 2012; 21: 448-60.
- Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 2002; 360: 473-82.
- Kiess W, Galler A, Reich A, Muller G, Kapellen T, Deutscher J, et al. Clinical aspects of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 29-36.
- Zepelin H, Siegel JM, Tobler I. Mammalian sleep. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Fourth edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2005:91-100.
- National Sleep Foundation. Sleep for Kids. Available at: http://www.sleepforkids.org. Accessed December 6, 2012.
How to cite this article:
Petit D, Montplaisir J. Consequences of Short Sleep Duration or Poor Sleep in Young Children. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Petit D, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sleeping-behaviour/according-experts/consequences-short-sleep-duration-or-poor-sleep-young-children. Published December 2012. Accessed October 23, 2018.