Social cognition refers to thoughts and beliefs that individuals and groups hold concerning how and why people act as they do. The ability to interpret one’s own and other people’s actions in terms of internal and mental states that motivate human behaviour is central to social cognition. Much past work has demonstrated that there are significant developments in children’s ability during the preschool period to use psychological states to predict, describe and explain behaviour.1,2,3 This chapter reviews recent evidence that suggests the basic foundations of these abilities can be traced back to infancy.
By the end of the first two years of life, infants are adept at understanding basic goals, intentions, perceptions and emotional expressions, as well as simple preferences and dispositions. These socio-cognitive abilities are the building blocks for more mature aspects of social cognition, such as theory-of-mind (see Astington4 and Miller5 chapters). Moreover, early socio-cognitive capacities contribute to learning across a range of domains, such as language learning,6,7 imitative learning,8 causal learning,9 and representational understanding.10
Because infants cannot undertake language-based tasks, researchers must rely on novel and innovative non-verbal methods to tap early social cognition. These methods, which typically capitalize on infants’ social behaviour (either occurring in a natural or an experimental context),11,12 and infants’ visual responses to simple social events,13 have yielded a wealth of information regarding early social cognition. However, as the findings from these methods are often open to multiple interpretations,14 converging methods are needed to gain an accurate picture of social cognition in infancy.
Infants’ early social cognitive understanding is inferred via their spontaneous or elicited social behaviour in naturalistic and laboratory settings, and via their visual and manual responses to simple social events presented in the context of experimental paradigms. Carefully controlled experiments, with a range of different manipulations are necessary to reduce the number of potential alternate interpretations of research findings.
Key Research Questions
- What is the range of socio-cognitive understandings that infants possess? How are these understandings similar to, and different than, the understandings of older children and adults?
- To what extent do infants possess a sophisticated mentalistic understanding of other people’s actions (e.g., understand behaviour in terms of psychological states) versus a more simple behavioural understanding (e.g., understanding behaviour in terms of contingencies and rules)? How can we distinguish between these different levels of understanding?
- Are certain aspects of social cognition innate? If so, which ones?
- What factors or experiences drive developmental change in early social cognitive understanding?
- Are early social cognitive abilities universal or culturally specific? To the extent that there is variability in social cognition across cultures, when and how do these differences arise?
Recent Research Results
Recent work suggests that there are advances over the first two years of life in infants’ understanding of goals and intentions, their understanding of perceptions and emotions, and their understanding of preferences and dispositions.
One integral aspect of social cognition involves the ability to construe action as motivated by goals and intentions. By 6 months of age, infants view simple actions, such as reaching for and grasping an object as goal directed.15 Over the course of the next 6 months they identify the goal of increasingly complex actions and action sequences.16,17 By this age, infants can also differentiate between accidental and intentional actions,13 and recognize that only animate agents (and not inanimate objects) possess goals and intentions. 15
Another important aspect of social cognition involves recognizing the meaning of perceptual acts and emotional expressions. Starting at 9 to 12 months of age, infants appear to understand simple perceptual experiences and recognize the value of different emotional expressions. For example, infants recognize that an adult looking at a toy with her eyes open is having a perceptual experience, but an adult looking at a toy with her eyes closed is not.18 Moreover, infants can use an experimenter or parent’s emotional expression to decide whether or not to approach a novel toy,19 or engage in a novel activity.20
The ability to know how personal characteristics influence behaviour is also a critical aspect of social cognition. Between 12 and 15 months infants begin to understand simple dispositions and preferences. For example, at this age infants expect an agent to continue to pursue a prior behaviour or activity when placed in a novel context.21,22 Moreover, infants appreciate that preferences and dispositions are personal: they understand that different people can like different things.23
One critical question for future research concerns the mechanisms, factors and experiences that underlie developments in early social cognition. Current work is beginning to demonstrate how specific experiences that infants have as actors and observers in the world serve as a catalyst for acquiring specific aspects of social cognitive knowledge.24 For example, infants’ ability to perform specific goal-directed acts (e.g., using a reaching tool to obtain an out-of-reach toy), appears to contribute strongly to their ability to understand the goal of these acts when produced by others.25 A second question concerns how innate sensitivities that infants possess may interact with environmental experience to produce development. Finally, ongoing research is investigating the neural processes underlying early social cognition. The answer to these questions will not only contribute to our understanding of what changes in early social cognition, but will also inform how developmental change occurs.
Whereas researchers once thought that social cognition was uniquely the province of older children, it is now evident that infants possess a range of social sensitivities and early social cognitive understandings that provide the foundation for later, more mature aspects of social cognition. Infants’ social cognitive understanding appears to become increasingly abstract over the first two years of life: they understand the visible goals to which action is directed, prior to understanding simple perceptual and emotional states that drive behaviour, before understanding how ongoing personal tendencies motivate actions. Recent work reveals that achieving each of these understandings is not an all-or-none phenomenon. Rather, development may proceed one action or social event at a time, in a piecemeal fashion.26 This developmental picture raises the possibility that additional factors, such as language, are required to achieve the more explicit and integrated social cognitive understanding of people and their behaviour that older children possess.
Critically, however, infants’ early social cognitive knowledge has consequences not only for their social interactions, but also for learning across domains. Infants use their knowledge of goals, intentions, perceptions, emotions, dispositions and preferences to engage in language learning,6,7 imitative learning,8 and understanding cause and effect.9
Implications for Parents, Services and Policy
Research suggests that developments in early social cognitive understanding are driven, at least in part, by opportunities to act on the world and watch others act. These findings suggest that live social interactions that feature a combination of action and observation on the part of infants are important for the development of early social cognitive skills, and, by extension, for learning more broadly. Recent work has also begun to explore the specific conditions that facilitate infants’ and children’s understanding of other people’s behaviour. These studies have demonstrated that contexts in which adults act as collaborative partners to children,27 accompany their behavior by verbal explanations,28 and/or provide a preview of the goal of an activity prior to demonstrating the activity produce the best learning.29
Knowledge of early socio-cognitive milestones can also be helpful for diagnosis and remediation of developmental disorders that are marked by social deficits, such as autism.
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- Wellman HM, Cross D, Watson J. Meta-analysis of theory of mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development 2001;72:655-684.
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- Astington JW, Edward MJ. The development of theory of mind in early childhood. In: Tremblay RE, Barr RG, Peters RDeV, Boivin M, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 2010:1-6. Available at: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/Astington-EdwardANGxp.pdf. Accessed August 27, 2010.
- Miller SA. Social-cognitive development in early childhood. In: Tremblay RE, Barr RG, Peters RDeV, Boivin M, eds. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development; 2010:1-5. Available at: http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/MillerANGxp.pdf. Accessed August 27, 2010.
- Tomasello M. Perceiving intentions and learning words in the second year of life. In: Tomasello M, Bates E, eds. Language development: The essential readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing; 2001: 111-128.
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- Meltzoff AN. Understanding the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. Developmental Psychology 1995;31:838-850.
- Sommerville JA, Woodward AL. Infants’ sensitivity to the causal features of means-end support sequences in action and perception. Infancy 2005;8:119-145.
- Gelman SA, Bloom P. Young children are sensitive to how an object was created when deciding what to name it. Cognition 2000;76:91-103.
- Moore C. The development of gaze following. Child Development Perspectives 2008;2:66-70.
- Liszkowski U, Carpenter M, Tomasello M. Pointing out new news, old news and absent referents at 12 months of age. Developmental Science 2007;10:1-7.
- Woodward AL. Infants’ ability to distinguish between purposeful and non-purposeful behaviors. Infant Behavior & Development 1999;22:145-160.
- Aslin RN. What’s in a look? Developmental Science 2007;10:48-53.
- Woodward AL. Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor’s reach. Cognition 1998;69:1-34.
- Sommerville JA, Woodward AL. Pulling out the intentional structure of action: the relation between action processing and action production in infancy. Cognition 2005;95:1-30.
- Woodward AL, Sommerville JA. Twelve-month-old infants interpret action in context. Psychological Science 2000;11:73-77.
- Brooks R, Meltzoff AN. The development of gaze following and its relation to language. Developmental Science 2005;8:535-543.
- Baldwin DA, Moses LJ. Links between social understanding and early word learning: Challenges to current accounts. Social Development 2001;10:309-329.
- Adolph KE, Tamis-LeMonda CS, Ishak S, Karasik LB, Lobo SA. Locomotor experience and use of social information is posture specific. Developmental Psychology 2008;44:1705-1714.
- Kuhlmeier V, Wynn K, Bloom P. Attribution of dispositional states by 12-month-olds. Psychological Science 2003;14:402–408.
- Song H, Baillargeon R, Fisher C. Can infants attribute to an agent a disposition to perform a particular action? Cognition 2005;98:B45-B55.
- Sootsman Buresh J, Woodward AL. Infants track action goals within and across agents. Cognition 2007;104:287-314.
- Sommerville JA, Needham A, Woodward AL. Action experience alters 3-month-old infants’ perception of others’ actions. Cognition 2005;86:B1-B11.
- Sommerville JA, Hildebrand EA, Crane CC. Experience matters: The impact of doing versus watching on infants’ subsequent perception of tool use events. Developmental Psychology 2008;44:1249-1256.
- Woodward AL, Sommerville JA, Guajardo JJ. How infants make sense of intentional action. In: Malle BF, MosesLJ, Baldwin DA, eds. Intentions and intentionality: Foundations of social cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 2001: 149-169.
- Sommerville JA, Hammond AJ. Treating another’s actions as one’s own: Children’s memory of and learning from joint activity. Developmental Psychology 2007;43:1003-1018.
- Sobel DM, Sommerville JA. Rationales and children’s causal learning from others’ actions. Cognitive Development 2009;24(1):70-79.
- Sommerville JA, Crane C. Ten-month-old infants use prior information to identify an actor’s goal. Developmental Science 2009;12:314-325.
How to cite this article:
Sommerville JA. Infants’ Social Cognitive Knowledge. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. Zelazo PD, topic ed. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. https://www.child-encyclopedia.com/social-cognition/according-experts/infants-social-cognitive-knowledge. Published: September 2010. Accessed 28 November 2021.Text copied to the clipboard ✓